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Enterprise Financial Advisory

Our Enterprise Financial Advisory services provide comprehensive, expert guidance tailored to your business needs. From financial planning to risk management, we work closely with you to understand your unique goals and challenges. With our help, you can make informed financial decisions and position your business for long-term success. Don't leave the financial success of your business to chance.

Data Analysis & Strategy

Why is a Data Strategy Important?

Having data is not sufficient; a well-defined strategy is necessary to leverage the value of your data and achieve meaningful outcomes that align with your business objectives. A data strategy empowers your organization to drive innovation, enhances the effectiveness of business users, and improves competitiveness. If you lack a data strategy, you may face common data-related obstacles, such as:

  • Inability to make timely, data-driven decisions
  • Reporting on the past and not anticipating and preparing for the future
  • Low user adoption of technology
  • Being locked into a single vendor for various parts of the data lifecycle
  • Inconsistent, poorly defined, or undocumented definitions for metrics and KPIs
  • Data stuck in silos and departments working from different “truths”
  • Manually integrating data from disparate data sources
  • Spending too much time preparing raw data
  • Data quality and data access issues
  • Users too dependent on IT

How to use strategic data analysis to grow your business:

  1. Assess your organization’s data analysis capabilities
  2. Implement data democratization
  3. Use a centralized data management platform (DMP)
  4. Make sure your data analysis strategies align
  5. Tell a story with data analysis
Low Value + High Risk


  • No formal analytic structure
  • No analyitcs management / occurs in silos
  • Employees’ analytic capabilities vary
  • KPIs undefined: based on ad hoc & chaotic metrics
  • Employees’ Low or mixed confidence in reports capabilities vary
  • Employees’ Low or mixed confidence in reports capabilities vary
  • Lack data-driven decisions
Low Value + High Risk


  • No formal integrated enterprise reporting
  • Analytics management is departmentalized
  • Employees’ analytic capabilities Employee’s analytic competences vary
  • KPIs focus on the past: asking what happened last week/month/year
Medium Value + Medium Risk


  • No formal integrated enterprise reporting
  • KPIs focus on present metrics/real-time: asking what is happening today and why
  • Defined key metrics shown within dashboards and scorecards
  • Employee analytics competencies vary
  • Analytics management is departmentalized
High Value + Low Risk


  • Integrated enterprise analytics
  • Analytics management and processes exist
  • KPIs focus on future outcomes: measures leading indicators that provide prescriptive changes (e.g. how does changing x, y and z impact outcomes?)
  • Leveraging internal and external data
High Value + Low Risk


  • Integrate enterprise analytics (including advanced analytics)
  • Strong analytics management and processes
  • KPIs focus on predictionsL provide strong confidence levels for taking business actions
  • Data science is operationalised
  • Machine learning and AI analysis are used to project KPIs

Business Mergers & Acquisitions:

  • M&A strategy development
  • Development of marketing materials (teaser, pitch decks, investment memorandums)
  • Buyer and target company valuation
  • Deal origination
  • Creating target company longlists and shortlists
  • Approaches to buyers and sellers
  • Conducting Initial approaches and negotiations with third parties
  • Deal closing
  • Document preparation for deal closing (LOIs and SPAs)
  • Capital raising
  • Company restructuring
  • Post-merger integration
  • Due diligence assistance

Business Plan Developments

What is the purpose of a business plan and why are business plans so important? Below are our top 20 reasons why you need a business plan.

1. In order to demonstrate your dedication to developing your business, it is essential to have a formal business plan that showcases your commitment to all stakeholders, including employees, investors, partners, and yourself. By creating a comprehensive plan, you are compelled to carefully consider and choose the strategies that will drive your business's progress.

2. A formal business plan is essential to establish significant business milestones. It should clearly outline the long-term objectives that are critical to the success of your business. As Guy Kawasaki suggests, a milestone should be significant enough to excite and inform your spouse. While a small tweak to the company brochure may not be noteworthy, launching a new website or achieving $1M in annual revenue are milestones worth celebrating and sharing.

3. By creating a business plan, you gain a better understanding of your competition. It compels you to analyze your competitors, whether they are direct or indirect, and assess your company's competitive advantages. If you lack competitive advantages, it prompts you to determine the steps necessary to obtain them.

4. Understanding your customers is crucial to creating an effective business plan and building a successful business. An in-depth analysis of your customers' buying habits and preferences will enable you to develop better products and services for them, and to reach them more cost-effectively through advertising and promotions. By understanding why they buy and why they don't, you can tailor your marketing efforts to meet their needs and preferences.

5. Writing a business plan can help bring underlying assumptions to light. This process can help test and analyze the validity of these assumptions. For instance, you may have assumed that your product would be carried by local retailers. By including this scenario in your business plan, you can evaluate the potential outcome if this assumption does not hold true.

6. One of the purposes of creating a business plan is to evaluate the viability of your business idea. The process of researching your target market and analyzing the competitive landscape serves as a feasibility study for the success of your venture. By doing so, you can determine the strength of the opportunity and decide whether to pursue it or not. In some cases, it may lead you to reconsider the venture altogether, or to explore a different opportunity that may have a greater chance of success.

7. Documenting your revenue model is crucial to understanding how your business will generate profits. By outlining the revenue model in writing, you can identify potential challenges and assumptions associated with the model. This helps you and your investors understand how the business will make money. Additionally, when others read your plan, they may suggest additional revenue streams to consider.

8. A business plan can help you determine your financial needs, such as whether your business needs to raise capital and if so, how much. By documenting your capital needs and outlining how you plan to use the funds, you can effectively raise capital for your business and plan for future funding requirements. This process is critical to ensure that you employ the capital effectively and achieve your business goals.

9. A formal business plan is crucial for financing proposals and can help attract investors. It provides answers to investors' questions such as the need for the product or service, financial projections, and the company's exit strategy. Even though investors will typically want to meet with you in person before investing, they will most likely review your business plan thoroughly.

10. Creating a business plan can reduce the risk of pursuing the wrong opportunity and minimize opportunity costs. By going through the planning process, you can assess the attractiveness of the opportunity you're considering, as well as compare it to other potential opportunities. This helps you make informed decisions and reduce the likelihood of wasting time and resources on an opportunity that may not be the best fit for your business.

11. The creation of a business plan compels you to conduct thorough research and gain a deep understanding of your market. It requires you to examine the most significant trends, potential threats, and the size of the target market for your product or service. Through this process, you will gain a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of your marketplace, which can help you make informed decisions to enhance your company’s success.

12. Having a business plan is crucial to attract and retain top-quality employees and a management team. It shows that your business idea is solid and that the company is on track to achieve its strategic goals, which can inspire and motivate employees and management. As your company grows, your employees will be the ones doing most of the work, so getting them aligned and motivated is critical for success.

13. A business plan helps plot your course and focus your efforts. It serves as a roadmap to guide your operations and to provide direction during moments of uncertainty. Without a business plan, you may frequently change your short-term strategies without considering your long-term objectives. It is like embarking on a long driving trip without a map. Your business plan is your map, providing guidance and helping you stay on track towards your goals.

14. A business plan is essential to attract partners as they want to understand the feasibility and potential of your business before investing their time and capital. Partnerships can be critical to your business success, but they often require a substantial amount of resources. Therefore, a well-written business plan that provides a detailed explanation of your company's goals, strategies, and potential for growth can increase the likelihood of securing valuable partnerships.

15. Creating a business plan can assist in positioning your brand. By defining your company's role in the marketplace, you can clearly communicate your business and brand to customers, investors, and partners. Additionally, the insight you gain from researching the industry, customer behavior, and competition during the business planning process can help you determine the best way to position your brand.

16. A formal business plan enables you to measure the actual operational results against the plan, making it easier to determine whether you have achieved your strategic, financing, and operational objectives. This comparison can help you identify the reasons behind success or failure and make necessary adjustments to improve your business.

17. A business plan can help you adapt to changing conditions by providing a framework to evaluate and implement new ideas and strategies. In challenging economic times, if your current sales and operational models are not effective, you can use your business plan to redefine your approach and test out new ideas to see what works best for your business.

18. A business plan is crucial in documenting your marketing plan. It helps you answer important questions such as how you plan to reach and retain customers, how much you plan to allocate to advertising, and what pricing strategy to adopt. Having a well-documented marketing plan is essential for the growth of your business. However, the marketing landscape is ever-changing, and your marketing strategies and tactics should evolve each year. Therefore, revisiting your marketing plan at least annually is crucial.

19. After finalizing your business plan, it's important to comprehend and predict your company's staffing requirements. By doing so, you'll be prepared for any unforeseen staff shortages. Your business plan serves as a guide for your staffing needs, enabling you to expand your operations smoothly. Additionally, your plan can assist you in determining the appropriate timing for hiring as it typically takes time to identify and train qualified employees.

20. By engaging in brainstorming, whiteboarding, and creative interviewing, you can discover fresh opportunities for your business. This process can help you perceive your company from a different perspective, leading to innovative concepts for marketing your product or service and managing your operations. The ability to generate these ideas and implement them is often what distinguishes a thriving business from one that merely survives or fails.

Internal Control Analysis

Internal Controls

Our goal is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of operations by offering a positive impact. In order to achieve this, we provide internal controls information that covers the fundamental concepts of internal controls and their relevance to UCSF. The following are included in our coverage:

Internal controls summary

Internal control refers to a procedure put in place by an organization's board of directors, management, and other personnel with the aim of providing reasonable assurance:

That information is reliable, accurate, and timely compliance with applicable laws, regulations, contracts, policies, and procedures of the reliability of financial reporting. The primary objective of internal controls is to prevent errors and irregularities, detect issues, and guarantee that appropriate corrective measures are taken. Within your department, process owners frequently execute controls and engage with the control framework on a daily basis, oftentimes without even realizing it, as controls are integrated into operations.

Control definition reflects certain fundamental concepts: Internal control is not an end in itself, but a process designed to achieve a particular objective. People play a crucial role in the implementation of internal control. It is not only about policy manuals and forms but also about individuals at every level of the organization.

Internal control can only provide reasonable assurance to the management and board of an entity, not absolute assurance Internal controls are implemented to enhance:

Internal control aims to achieve the following:

  • Ensure the reliability and integrity of information
  • Ensure compliance with policies, plans, procedures, laws, and regulations
  • Safeguard assets
  • Promote economical and efficient use of resources
  • Achieve established objectives and goals for operations or programs

The internal control structure is an integral part of the management process and is based on the way an operation or function is run. Although the components of internal control apply to the entire organization, small and mid-sized departments may implement them differently from larger ones. Together, these components provide reasonable assurance that established objectives and goals are met.

The internal control structure consists of five inter-related components:

The control environment refers to the overall tone of an organization that influences the control consciousness of its personnel. It comprises various factors, such as:

  • The integrity, ethical values, and competence of the individuals associated with the entity
  • Management's philosophy and operating style
  • The method of assigning authority and responsibility, and organizing and developing personnel
  • The attention and direction provided by the University

Other examples of control environment factors include:

  • Tone from the top
  • Company Policy
  • Organizational authority

Risk assessment involves identifying and analyzing relevant risks that could impact the achievement of objectives, and using this information to determine how these risks should be managed. Examples of risk assessment include:

  • Monthly meetings to discuss risk issues
  • Internal audit risk assessment
  • Formal internal departmental risk assessment

Control activities refer to the policies and procedures that aid in ensuring that management's directives are followed. These activities encompass a wide range of actions, such as approvals, authorizations, verifications, reconciliations, reviews of operating performance, security of assets, and segregation of duties. Other examples of control activities include:

  • Purchasing limits
  • Approvals
  • Security

Specific policies

Information and communication involve identifying and communicating relevant information in a manner and timeframe that enables individuals to fulfill their responsibilities. Information systems generate reports that contain operational, financial, and compliance-related information to facilitate the management and control of the organization. Effective communication also involves broader communication that flows down, across, and up the organization. Examples of information and communication include:

  • Vision and values or engagement survey
  • Issue resolution calls
  • Reporting
  • University communications (e.g., emails, meetings)

Monitoring is an essential part of internal control systems, which involves evaluating the performance of the system over time to ensure its effectiveness. This is achieved through ongoing monitoring activities, separate evaluations, or a combination of both. Ongoing monitoring takes place during the course of operations. Any internal control deficiencies should be reported upstream, with significant issues reported to top management and the Regents. Examples of monitoring activities include:

  • Monthly reviews of performance reports
  • Internal audit function

Internal control types To mitigate risks to the organization, different controls are required depending on the risks and environments involved. The types of controls described below can be used in combination to achieve this.

Preventive and detection controls

Preventive controls aim to prevent unwanted outcomes before they occur. Examples include the use of passwords, approval processes, policies, and procedures. Detection controls aim to detect errors or irregularities that may have already occurred. Examples include reconciliations, monitoring of expenses against budgets, and forecasts.

Hard controls are tangible and formal, including organizational structures, policies, procedures, and segregation of duties. Soft controls are intangible and informal, including the tone at the top, ethical climate, integrity, trust, and competence.

Manual controls are performed manually, either solely manual or IT-dependent, while automated controls are performed entirely by the computer system. Key controls are essential to reducing the risk to an acceptable level, while secondary controls assist in the smooth operation of processes but are not essential.

To identify the appropriate controls, it is necessary to understand the objectives being sought, which will help to determine the risks that are present. Therefore, Objectives → Risks → Controls. 

Internal controls in my department

Control activities within your department may include the following:

To mitigate the risk of error or inappropriate actions, segregation of duties should be implemented by dividing duties among different individuals. This ensures that no one person has control over all aspects of any financial transaction. Transactions should be authorized by a person delegated approval authority when consistent with policy and funds are available. Regular review and reconciliation of records should be performed by someone other than the preparer or transactor to ensure that transactions are properly processed.

Physical security of equipment, inventories, cash, and other property should be ensured, with periodic counts and comparison with control records. Appropriate training and guidance should be provided to employees to ensure they have the necessary knowledge to carry out their job duties, receive appropriate supervision, and know the proper channels for reporting suspected improprieties. Formalizing and communicating University and departmental policies and operating procedures to employees helps provide day-to-day guidance and promotes continuity in the event of employee absences or turnover. It's important to remember that everyone in the department has a responsibility for internal controls.

Inventory Management

Inventory management involves the monitoring and control of inventory movements, including tracking the flow of inventory from manufacturers to warehouses and then to the point of sale.

Key features of effective inventory management

  • Inventory tracking: Know exactly where inventory is across the supply chain.
  • Order management: Customize pricing, send quotes, track orders and manage returns.
  • Transfer management: Move product to where it's most valuable. Reporting and analytics: Evaluate patterns in processes to forecast future demand and sales.
  • Purchasing: Create and manage purchase orders. Shipping capabilities: Automate shipping to reduce errors such as late deliveries or delivering incorrect packages.

SWOT Analysis

By conducting a SWOT Analysis, you can identify and challenge risky assumptions, as well as uncover dangerous blind spots regarding your organization's performance. Through careful and collaborative use, this tool can provide new insights into your current business status and guide the development of an effective strategy for any situation.

For instance, you may be aware of some strengths of your organization, but without considering weaknesses and threats, you may not realize the potential limitations of those strengths. Similarly, while you may have concerns about certain weaknesses, a systematic analysis could reveal previously overlooked opportunities that can more than make up for those weaknesses.

Strengths: What do you do well? What unique resources can you draw on? What do others see as your strengths?
Weaknesses: What could you improve? Where do you have fewer resources than others? What are others likely to see as weaknesses?
Opportunities: What opportunities are open to you? What trends could you take advantage of? How ccan you turn your strengths into opportunities?
Threats: What threats could harm you? What is your competition doing? What threats do your weaknesses expose to you?

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